Physical therapy

Physical therapy

Physical therapy is an independent medical branch that provides services that help people to improve, retain and regain maximum movement and functional ability. It also provides support to all age groups incircumstances when movement and functional ability are endangered by the aging process, injury or illness.

Physical therapist is a person who performs, manages and supervises physical therapy. Physical therapy involves an interaction between a physical therapist, a patient/client and family/guardian.

Physical therapy begins with an assessment of body posture, cardiorespiratory system, nervous system, muscle potential and movement ability. It is essential for determining the core problem and for developing an intervention strategy. It is consistent under all circumstances which vary depending on what type of treatment a physical therapist performs (health improvement, prevention, intervention or rehabilitation).
The assessment begins with the doctor’s medical examination of a person or a group of people. The doctor interviews the patient/client on his current and possibledefects, functional limitations, inabilities and other conditions. Additional screening and special tests are used to get the patient’s complete clinicalpictureand to make a diagnosis.
Physical therapy diagnosis can contain a grade of movement inability, defect type, functional limitations, inabilities and other syndromes.

Physical therapy begins with an intervention plan which contains preventive measures, defined goalsand measurable results set by a physical therapist in cooperation with patient/client and family/guardian.
The intervention is conducted and modified during the physical therapy process in order to achieve the defined goals. It includes manual therapy, therapeutic exercises, use of physical agents, electrotherapy and mechanical procedures, functional training, required equipment, instructions and advice, documentation management, communication and coordination with the patient/client and his family/guardian.
The intervention can also aim at defect prevention, functional limitations, inabilities and injuries, including improvement and maintenance of good health, quality of life and physical fitness across all ages and genders. The evaluation requires an additional examination to establish the progress of the therapy. If it is determined that the patient is not a suitable candidate for physical therapy, the patient is advised to contact a medical specialist for further treatment.



Electrotherapy refers to the use of electric currents for the purpose of medical treatment.

  • Direct electrotherapy usesconstant and direct electric current to perform a treatment. It includes galvanic current, ultrasound current, diadynamic current and interference current.
  • Indirect electrotherapy transforms electric current into some other type of energy that is then usedto heal patients


One example is mechanotherapy which transforms electric current into mechanical energy which is then used to heal patients. Furthermore, electric current can be transformed into light energywhich through phototherapy is used to heal various illnesses.

Electric current, i.e. high frequency current is turnedin the body into thermal energy – this is called thermotherapy or heat therapy. It results in analgesia and hyperaemia.

Division of electric current according to frequency:


  • constant, direct and galvanic current
  • diadynamic currentor modulations from 50 to 100 Hz
  • ultrasound current at 140 Hz



  • interference current at 4000 Hz



  • electrical stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES)
  • electromagnetic stimulation produces electromagnetic waves with a biological effect


The main characteristics of direct current treatment is that it does not normally cause muscle contractions, but it primarily causes iontophoresis and conductivity and responsiveness of the neuromuscular apparatus.

The main characteristic of electric stimulation treatment is muscle contraction regardless of the type of current used.

The main characteristic of high-frequency electric current treatment is that it heats deeper layers of body tissue.

Ultrasound therapy

Human ear perceives frequency vibrations ranging from 20 Hz to 20 KHz. Vibrations below 20 Hz are called infrasound, and vibrations over 20 KHz are called ultrasound. Ultrasound is used in physical therapy as one of therapeutic agents. It has a mechanical effect, as it provides micro massage, mechanical compression and stretching of tissue, as well as movement of individual tissue cells.One of the most important therapeutic effects of ultrasound is itsthermal effect at the depth of 3 to 5 centimetres.
Mechanical energy turns ultrasound into heat, particularly on spots of ultrasound reflection and that is the border between soft tissues and bones.

Ultrasound energy is created on the border of sound and tissue. That is why several types of coupling media such as water, oil or gel are used to transmit energy.

Water-bath method is an ideal method fortreatment of fists and feet. An ultrasound headis placed in water 0.5 to 3 cm away from the treated area.

– indications – dysfunction of soft tissue, contractures of joints and scar tissue, tendinitis, bursitis, skeletal muscle spasm, decubitus ulcer, sports injuries, lumbosacral syndrome

– contraindications – eye diseases, heart diseases and pacemaker implantation, pregnancy, testicles, during radiation of malignant tumours, parts of the body with poor circulation, osteoporosis (people over 65), people with mental implants in the area treated by ultrasound (osteosynthesis, endoprothesis) and foreign bodies in the tissue.


Laser therapy

Laser is an abbreviation from Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Today, laser has wide applications in medicine. Various technical innovations have eliminated all technical deficiencies of previous laser types used in physical therapy.

Laser is one of the youngest methods applied in modern medicine, but despite that it is an essential and irreplaceable tool in almost all branches of medicine.

Laser therapy is usage of light energy in beams to accelerate the healing process and analgesia. It is one of the methods used to treat ligaments, muscles and tendons, and it is also used as an analgesic (pain-killer).

MLS is the latest laser therapy method that contains a multidiode applicator that emits laser beams of different continuous and pulsed wavelengths. At the same time it has an anti-oedematous and anti-inflammatory effect providing long-term result.

Magnotherapy or magnetic therapy

Magnotherapy is a type of therapy that uses static and pulsed magnetic field for the purpose of a medical treatment.
There are three components of magnotherapy acting on human body: the density of the electromagnetic field energy, the content of the magnetic fieldthat is transmitted to thehuman body with specific pulses andoscillationsin frequency and resonance.

Magnetic field occurs due to circular currents among atoms and molecules. It can also be induced using current and changing electric field.

It is important to emphasize that the planet Earth is a magnet. The direction of magnetic strandsis measured with a compass, and amounts at approximately 47 mT while intensity decreases in the direction from the poles towards the Equator. The intensity varies depending on the time of the day and the season.
Magnetic fields protect our planet form excessive solar radiation and they improve orientation of birds and insects.
Magnetic strands pass through different materials and different materials have different permeability. Magnetic field at any point in space is a vector quantity. It is created when the current passes through the conductor or the solenoid.

A circular magnetic field is created around the conductor, and magnetic fields mergewithin the solenoid. The density is measured in Teslas.
The basic principles of magnotherapy are:

  • improvement of energy balance
  • positive influence on the autonomic nervous system
  • better circulation
  • better oxygen consumption of the erythrocytes
  • faster regeneration of the infected tissue
  • piezoelectric effect
  • better calcium release and higher amounts of calcium in the cells
  • changes induced on the cell membranes caused by the magnetic field
  • direct influence on the cartilage cells
  • stimulation of fibroblast which is essential for tissue regeneration
  • increased water quantity in extracellular space


There are two types of magnetic fields – high-intensity magnetic field (over 100 V/m) and low-intensity magnetic field (less than 1 V/m). There are also differences between direct and indirect effect of the induced magnetic field. A high-intensity magnetic field can have thermal and non-thermal effect, while a low-intensity magnetic field can produce non-thermal or athermic effects.

Thermal effects result in increased body temperature and can be used to treat some illnesses.
Non-thermal effects have an influence on the autonomicnervous system, central nervous system and on the endocrine glands. There are functional changes of the whole nervous system, cardiovascular system and bone marrow.


Game Ready

Game Ready is a unique medical device that providesan ideal therapy, a combination of kriotherapy and intermittent pneumatic compression. It is used to cure acute (sports) soft tissue injuries, during post-surgery recovery and to recover after a training or a match.
Game Ready has been used in sports since 2001 and it has become the top medical device in recovery and rehabilitation after acute injuries, surgical interventions and trainings. It accelerates tissue regeneration and decreases pain without any additional medications.It enables controlled, faster, deeper and longer-lasting cold without anydanger of frostbite.

Therapeutic advantages:

  • more efficient than astatic compression
  • imitates natural muscle contractions by “pumping” the oedema away from the injured tissue, and that prevents tissue damage and stimulates accelerated recovery process
  • stimulates tissue regeneration
  • increases blood oxygen supply to the injury
  • improves lymphatic drainage
  • no danger of frostbite
  • reduces the need to take pain-killers
  • ensures quick recovery and return to daily routines



Kinesiotherapy is a branch of physical medicine that applies a conditioned and programmed movement used to prevent and treat congenital anomalies, illnesses or injuries. It is a vital part of every rehabilitation process. Kinesiotherapy treatment methods can be recognised in kinesiology and biomechanics, sciences that study and analyse motion and movement.

The goal of kinesiotherapy is to achieve optimal rehabilitation after an illness or an injury and to enable the patient to have a good quality of life. It is of great importance that the patient/client is cooperative and motivated so that he could perform exercises properly and regularly in order to recover completely or to improve health.

Individual approach is important as it is based on the patient’s needs and his current health and functional status.
Kinesiotherapy aims at improving body posture, muscle strength and endurance, speed movement range, coordination, flexibility and functioning of other organ systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system.

A goodquality of movement is essential for every person. Functionality movement is reflected inthe efficiency and effectiveness of movement. It is a prerequisite for high quality and suitable energy consumption during everyday activities, training and competition.

After defining patient’s deficits, we plan trainings based on the principles of stability and mobility of various body parts and determine their interconnection and by doing so develop the patient’s locomotor system based on the laws of equilibrium.

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